1 min read

Dr. Nicole Chambers

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3 Types of Shoulder Instability

Learn the 3 types of shoulder instability to help prevent pain!

Shoulder injuries are very common. Your shoulder is a highly mobile joint, imbalances in its stability and strength can easily lead to dislocations.

3 Types Of Shoulder Instability
Shoulder instability occurs when your muscles and ligaments are challenged to the point of pain and discomfort.
There are three major types of instability: anterior, posterior, and multidirectional.

1) Anterior
Anterior instability occurs when the humeral head (e.g. the “ball” of the shoulder joint) translates forward. Primarily seen in athletes and males aged 15-30. Dislocations generally occur with an outstretched arm. Anterior is the most common form of instability.

2) Posterior
Posterior instability is less common but typically seen in overhead athletes like football, tennis, baseball, lacrosse, and water polo. Posterior instability is usually aggravated with the arm forward and across, under load.

3) Multidirectional
Multidirectional instability is not associated with trauma. This type of instability occurs when there is general instability in all directions of shoulder movement. People with this type of instability are typically “double-jointed”, hypermobile individuals and/or have developed chronic dislocations of the shoulder.
Learn more about hypermobility here.

How Do You Manage Shoulder Instability?
Exercises dedicated to stabilization and neuromuscular control yield the best results. Managing shoulder instability requires specific strengthening and stabilization exercises that become natural to the individual.

The progression of your exercises should train you up to positions in which the shoulder was previously vulnerable. The reaction time for your shoulder stability needs to become second nature, which will require significant work and time.

Exercises should focus on the rotator cuff muscles, and the global movers of the shoulder. Training should focus on both open movements (e.g. overhead, unloaded movements like throwing), and planted movements (such as weight training, specialized push-ups, and core strengthening).

Want To Work On Your Shoulder Stability?
Book a session with me! I will assess your movements and set you up on a FutureProof plan to increase your mobility, reduce pain and prevent injury.

Book your session today

5 min read

Beginner & Advanced Rotator Cuff Exercises For Shoulder Pain

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Beginner & Advanced Rotator Cuff Exercises For Shoulder Pain

It’s Summer and you’re probably going to want to show off those Summer Shoulders! But what’s the point if the “flex” isn’t as strong as it looks? Let’s dive into some rotator cuff exercises that can be used to prevent and rehab your shoulder injuries.

It happens to a number of us: picture yourself in the gym and you hear “that sound” or get “that pain” in your shoulder. It’s “that” shoulder pain which limits the rest of your workout and ends up nagging you for the next week. Commonly you’ve strained a muscle in the shoulder.

First off, the shoulder joint is a complex part of the body with a number of rotator cuff muscles that are prone to injury, varying in severity and specific type. To effectively understand how to properly rehab the shoulder and prevent further injury, we must first understand the relevant shoulder muscles in order to give the appropriate rotator cuff exercises.

Below is a picture of each muscle in action:

Arm straight by side
Push with band (or against wall/table/etc without band)

Abduction of shoulder to 45-90 degrees, internal rotation

Abduction of shoulder to 90 degrees, external rotation

Teres Minor
Abduction of shoulder to 45 degrees, external rotation

These pictures above provide the foundation of treatment for a rotator cuff injury. With this, we can apply a progressive strengthening principle that can be used to strengthen the rotator cuff.

Start with holding these contractions within a pain free range. These are called isometric holds, which are the most basic of our shoulder exercises. Our goal is performing static holds that are direction specific for the individual rotator cuff muscles. Try to pick a point between the two pictures and hold is for 5-10 seconds for 3-5 repetitions.

We can progress these exercises by “concentrically and eccentrically” moving through available muscle range and eventually loading the muscles eccentrically. What we want to do here is move back and forth between the first and second picture for each muscle shown.

Additionally, here are another three exercises that are more advanced:

Bully Stretch
This is a great stretch to help open up the whole shoulder area. There are a number of muscles that can get tight, leading to overuse rotator cuff injuries. Use this stretch as maintenance after your upper body training days. Try to aim for a 20-30 second stretch for 3-4 repetitions total.

Lawn Mower Pull
This movement is a more complex, multidirectional movement involving the rotator cuff muscles. It incorporates the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor and teaches them to coordinate themselves while stabilizing the shoulder blade throughout the movement.

Wood Chopper
As the “lawn mower” exercise above, this is more advanced, multi-directional movement. This one aims to get the other rotator cuff muscle, subscapularis, working with your larger chest and back muscles.

Our shoulders are a muscle group that we usually don’t think about throughout our day. But when we experience some sort of injury, regardless of it’s severity, pain and weakness can limit our ability to effectively coordinate our everyday complex movements. Including any upcoming Summer sports, activities, and events with family and friends. That’s why these seemingly “simple” exercises are so important to help rehab ourselves back to our full potential.

Use these exercises but make sure you speak with your local therapist to ensure the specific aspects of your injury are well understood.